John gospel dating
The language of the Gospel and its well-developed theology suggest that the author may have lived later than John and based his writing on John’s teachings and testimonies.
Moreover, the facts that several episodes in the life of Jesus are recounted out of sequence with the Synoptics and that the final chapter appears to be a later addition suggest that the text may be a composite.
Among them was the great fire of Rome which broke out in A. 64, resulting in Nero cracking down on Christians, thus greatly exacerbating the perseuction of the early church. Regarding the great fire of Rome, recounts that rumours arose that the fire was the result of an order from the Emperor Nero himself.
Even as early as the late first century, Clement of Rome writes of the martyrdom of the apostles Peter and Paul, saying (1 Clement 5),“Let us set before our eyes the illustrious apostles.
But what if there was internal indication to suggest that the temple was still standing at the time the gospel narratives were penned?In the narration of certain miraculous deeds, for example, the feeding of the 5,000 (6:1–15), which appears in all four Gospels, John’s version is explained as symbolic of a deeper spiritual truth (“I am the bread of life; . Thus, the author of John’s Gospel does not merely narrate a series of events but singles out details that support an ordered theological interpretation of those events.Because of its special theological character, the Gospel According to John was considered in ancient times to be the “spiritual Gospel,” and it wielded a profound and lasting influence on the development of early Christian doctrine.The author of John’s Gospel tells us that he has chosen not to record many of the symbolic acts of Jesus and has instead included certain episodes in order that his readers may understand and share in the mystical union of Christ’s church, that they “may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing you may have life in his name” ().This motive pervades the narrative, as do a kind of mystic symbolism and repeated emphasis on the incarnation.