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Thus, measuring the ratio of D to L in a sample enables one to estimate how long ago the specimen died.

As a rule of thumb, sites with a mean annual temperature of 30°C have a maximum range of 200 ka Strong acidity and mild to strong alkalinity induce greatly increased racemization rates.

This amino acid ratio has the advantages of being relatively easy to measure and being chronologically useful through the Quaternary.

Reverse phase HPLC techniques can measure up to 9 amino acids useful in geochronology over different time scales on a single chromatogram (aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, alanine, arginine, tyrosine, valine, phenylalanine, leucine).

Bone, shell, and sediment studies have contributed much to the paleontological record, including that relating to hominoids.

Verification of radiocarbon and other dating techniques by amino acid racemization and vice versa has occurred.

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